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Low GI Diet 低升糖飲食

Low GI Diet  Glycemic index (GI) is a measurement system for foods containing carbohydrate, which according to their effect on blood glucose levels. It represents how foods quickly affect your blood glucose levels. Carbohydrate can be broken down into glucose by digestive system and enter to the bloodstream, resulting in the blood glucose level rise. The low glycemic (low GI) diet is based on the concept of GI and it is originally designed for patients with diabetes and dieting purposes. Foods with low GI value are the preferred choice, suggesting that eating low GI foods instead of high GI foods can control dramatic fluctuations in blood glucose levels. Apart from the positive effect on blood glucose monitoring, low GI diet is also associated with the weight loss and cholesterol reduction. Low GI foods can delay the onset of hunger by maintaining sense of fullness. Therefore, this could control your appetite and is helpful on weight management. Many researches has been demonstrated that low GI diets may improve body weight, BMI, reduce blood glucose levels, and lower the risk of cardiovascular disease in people with overweight or obesity. Here are some foods with low GI are listed below, including: 1.    Some fruit and vegetables: Grapefruit, Pears, Apples, Asparagus, Broccoli, Cabbage, Tomatoes  2.    Pulses: Kidney beans, Peas, Lentils, Chickpeas, Moong dal 3.    Wholegrain foods:  Porridge oats, Barley, Wholegrain pasta, Sourdough bread It is worth noting that not all low GI foods are healthy, and high GI foods are not necessarily unhealthy. In addition, the combination of different foods and serving size are crucial factors which should be considerate. If you only eat foods with low GI and large portion, your diet may be unbalanced. In conclusion, low GI foods are suitable for patient who suffering from diabetes. For those who pay attention to their weight or glucose levels by using this diet method, it is also recommended to maintain a healthy and balanced diet. (Written by Mr Martin Dai, HK BioTek Nutritionist)   ***** 低升糖飲食 低升糖飲食又被稱為低GI飲食。一般情況下,碳水化合物食物會通過消化系統被分解成葡萄糖,並進入血液中,血糖亦因而上升。GI是Glycemic index的簡稱,指的是升糖指數 (又稱血糖生成指數) ,反映進食含碳水化合物 (醣質) 的食物後,對血糖影響的數值,因此簡單來說,就是食物對血糖的影響。 低GI飲食是基於食物中的GI和理論而衍生的飲食法。目的是透過選擇食用低GI的食物來控制血糖的升幅,從而幫助糖尿病患者及降低糖尿病併發症的風險。由於低GI的食物轉化葡萄糖速度比高GI的食物較慢,血糖升幅也較少,因此這種飲食法於關注血糖健康的群體中特別流行。 GI除了對血糖指數具有監測的作用外,不少研究亦指出通過低GI飲食能對體重管理和膽固醇的控制有很大幫助。低GI食物能維持較長的飽腹感來延遲饑餓度的時間,食慾亦因此而下降,並有助於體重管理。 一些常見的低GI食物,包括: 1.    蔬菜和水果:葡萄,梨,蘋果,蘆筍,西蘭花,白菜,蕃茄等 2.    豆類:腰豆,豌豆,小扁豆,綠豆等 3.    全穀類製品食物:燕麥、大麥,黑麥,全麥面食,酸面包等 值得一提,不是所有低GI食物都是健康的,高GI食物也不一定是不健康。另外,亦需要考慮不同種類食物的配搭和份量。如果僅吃低GI的食物和份量過多,有機會造成飲食不均衡,適得其反。 總括而言,低GI飲食是為控制血糖升幅的指標,同時亦應注意健康均衡的飲食,控制食物的分量和配搭,以達至理想的血糖控制和減肥效果。 (文章由HK BioTek營養師戴孟庭撰寫) 資料來源: 1.    香港糖尿協會 2.    Low-glycemic index diets as an intervention for diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis 3.    A Beginner’s Guide to the Low Glycemic Diet (Healthline) 4.    What is the glycaemic index (GI)? (NHS)  
2021-05-26

Gluten-free Diet 無麩質飲食

Gluten-free diet  According to an article on the Journal of American Medical Association in 2017, Celiac disease and nonceliac gluten sensitivity are real and common. Along with the increasing awareness of gluten-related health problems: celiac diseases, gluten allergies and sensitivity, gluten-free diets are more common than ever. Many food product manufacturers and restaurants tend to promote their products or meals with the “Gluten-Free” label, gluten-free diets become much more applicable. As long as the people with these gluten-related problems similarly bring adverse reactions after gluten consumption, it is crucial to eliminate gluten-rich foods like wheat, rye and barley in their diet. Nevertheless, a gluten-free diet can include other grains like rice and corn, fruits, vegetables, meat and seafood, etc. Celiac disease is a genetic autoimmune disorder that gluten consumption triggers an immune response, which damages the intestines and interferes with the absorption of the other nutrients. Gluten allergies and sensitivity, are also immune responses. With gluten allergies (IgE-mediated), the immune system overreacts with gluten and may cause serious symptoms that appear shortly (a few minutes to two hours) such as hives and shortness of breath. For gluten sensitivity (IgG-mediated), which is also known as delayed reactions (few hours or several days) which are often hard to discover in daily lives. According to the Food Sensitivity Handbook, there are studies supporting removing gluten from the diet for gluten sensitivities patients have relieved the immune-related issues like eczema and allergic rhinitis. Although gluten does not pose a health risk to the rest of the population, opinions are divided when it comes to the health benefits of a gluten-free diet. It is said that gluten-free diets often lack fiber, folic acid and minerals and generally contain more sugar and fat. However, opponents say that a gluten-free diet often increases the variety of a diet and often tends to be more nutritious. For the rest of the people, gluten-free diets are one of the options for you to take care of those who have gluten concerns. If there are many problems and reactions towards any new diet plan, you should watch your body and seek help from your healthcare professionals. (Written by Ms Stephanie Koo, HK BioTek Nutritionist)   ***** 無麩質飲食 一份於2017年刊登在美國醫學會期刊的文章指出,乳糜瀉及麩質敏感確定存在,而且比想像中普及。與此同時,近年人們對乳糜瀉、麩質過敏和敏感等與麩質有關的健康議題增加了不少的認識,這都令無麩質飲食漸趨普遍。許多食品製造商和餐廳都會加上「無麩質」標籤作推廣,令進行無麩質飲食的人士生活變得更輕鬆。 患有與麩質有關健康問題的人,在食用含有麩質的產品後,同樣都引起不良反應,因此需要從飲食中剔除含麩質的食物,例如:小麥、黑麥和大麥。然而,無麩質飲食可以包括其他穀物,例如白米和粟米、水果、蔬菜、肉類和海鮮等。 乳糜瀉是一種遺傳性自身免疫性疾病,食用麩質會引發免疫反應,損害腸道並干擾其他營養的吸收。麩質過敏和敏感性是免疫系統反應,患有麩質過敏症(IgE介導)時,免疫系統會與麩質過度反應,並可能導致在短時間內(幾分鐘到兩小時)出現的嚴重症狀,例如紅疹和呼吸急促。而麩質敏感(IgG介導),也稱為延遲反應(幾小時到幾天),在日常生活中通常較難發現。根據《食物不再敏感手冊》,有研究指出,麩質敏感患者從飲食中去除麩質後,緩解與免疫相關的問題,例如濕疹和過敏性鼻炎等。 儘管麩質不會對一般人構成健康風險,但對於無麩質飲食的健康益處,人們意見不一。有人認為無麩質飲食通常缺乏纖維、葉酸和礦物質,並且通常含有更多的糖和脂肪。但亦有人反對,認為無麩質飲食通常會令膳食變得更多元化,並且往往更有營養。 至於其他人,無麩質飲食可能是您照顧那些需要無麩質的人的選擇。每個人對任何新的飲食計劃如有不同的反應,都應該注意自己的身體和尋求您的醫生或專業人士的幫助。 (文章由HK BioTek營養師古宣恆撰寫) Reference: How celiac disease is triggered. (2021, February 08). Retrieved February 26, 2021, from https://www.beyondceliac.org/celiac-disease/gut-reaction-video/how-celiac-disease-is-triggered/ Gluten free and travel. (n.d.). Retrieved February 26, 2021, from https://www.coeliac.org.uk/information-and-support/living-gluten-free/the-gluten-free-diet/gluten-free-and-travel/ Gluten-Free food: Is gluten free good for you? (n.d.). Retrieved February 26, 2021, from https://www.foodunfolded.com/article/gluten-free-foods-are-they-actually-healthy?gclid=CjwKCAiAyc2BBhAaEiwA44-wW8MkgrKtydFFzE4UkyxTrkHd_RDDGaUKzYSL7GfsZexxfIj7V9I_tRoC3gIQAvD_BwE Celiac disease: AAAAI. (n.d.). Retrieved February 26, 2021, from https://www.aaaai.org/conditions-and-treatments/library/allergy-library/celiac-disease Kelly ServickMay. 23, 2., Jennifer Couzin-FrankelFeb. 23, 2., Meredith WadmanFeb. 23, 2., Jeffrey MervisFeb. 22, 2., Adrian ChoFeb. 19, 2., Cathleen O’GradyFeb. 19, 2., . . . Sofia MoutinhoJan. 29, 2. (2018, December 26). What's really behind 'gluten sensitivity'? Retrieved February 26, 2021, from https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2018/05/what-s-really-behind-gluten-sensitivity Celiac Disease and Nonceliac Gluten Sensitivity: A Review  https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28810029/
2021-05-26

What is Gluten? 甚麼是麩質?

What is Gluten? Wheat flour is a key ingredient for bread, biscuits and cakes. Gluten is a protein found naturally in many grains such as wheat, barley and rye. Gluten plays an important role in baking. When gluten protein is heated, it will form an elastic network. This structure can retain and stretch gas, so that foods such as bread and pasta can retain moisture and become soft. Gluten protein also has a binding effect, allowing the dough to maintain its shape, texture and elasticity. Therefore, gluten is often used as an additive to improve the texture and moistness of various processed foods. The use of flour with different gluten content can make full use of the unique physical properties of gluten. High-gluten flour can increase the smoky taste of noodles, and low-gluten flour is suitable for making soft foods, such as cakes and mooncake crusts. Gluten-free diets are becoming increasingly popular, especially due to the growing awareness of celiac diseases, gluten allergies and sensitivity. According to the Centre of Food Safety in Hong Kong, gluten is one of the 8 substances that have been defined as causing 90% of food allergies. Estimated prevalence of non-coeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) could be high as 13% of the population. Meanwhile, from the research of HK BioTek, gluten had been ranked as Top 3 of the common food sensitivity cases. For people with celiac disease cannot tolerate gluten, as gluten consumption may pose adverse reactions. Fortunately, there are varieties of gluten-free products which can act as alternatives for gluten-containing products. There are more high-quality gluten-free foods and restaurants that can bring benefits to those on a gluten-free diet. Gluten-free diets become accessible and applicable.  (Written by Ms Stephanie Koo, HK BioTek Nutritionist)   ***** 甚麼是麩質? 相信很多愛吃烘焙產品的人都知道小麥麵粉是麵包、餅乾和蛋糕的重要原材料。麩質(又被稱為麵筋)是一種天然存在於某些穀物中(如小麥,大麥和黑麥)的蛋白質。 麩質在烘焙過程中有著重要角色。麵筋蛋白在加熱後,會形成一個彈性網絡,這種結構可以保留和拉伸氣體,從而使麵包、麵食等食品保持水分,並變得鬆軟。麩質蛋白亦具有粘合作用,讓麵團保持形狀、質地和富有彈性。因此,麩質經常用作添加劑,以改善各種加工食品的質地和濕潤程度。而運用不同麩質含量的麵粉,可充分利用麩質的獨特物理特性,高筋麵粉可增加麵條的煙韌口感、低筋麵粉適合製作鬆軟的食物,如蛋糕、月餅皮。 無麩質飲食正變得越來越流行,由於人們對乳糜瀉、麩質過敏和敏感性的認識不斷提高。根據食品安全中心的數據,麩質是已界定為可造成90%食物過敏反應的8種物質之一。數據指出,全球患有麩質敏感的人口可高達13%。同時,根據HK BioTek的研究,麩質被列為食物敏感中排名前三位。對於患有乳糜瀉的人不能忍受麩質,因為食用麩質可能會引起不良反應。 幸運的是,現今有多種無麩質產品可以替代含麩質產品。有更多優質的無麩質食品和餐廳,可為那些無麩質飲食的人帶來好處。無麩質飲食變得更容易和可行。 (文章由HK BioTek營養師古宣恆撰寫)   Reference: HKBIoTek. (n.d.). Retrieved February 26, 2021, from http://www.hkbiotek.com/Resource_Centre Centre for food safety. (2017, May 23). Retrieved February 26, 2021, from https://www.cfs.gov.hk/english/food_leg/food_leg_lgfa.html What is gluten? Definition, foods, and side effects. (n.d.). Retrieved February 26, 2021, from https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/what-is-gluten Gluten-Free food: Is gluten free good for you? (n.d.). Retrieved February 26, 2021, from https://www.foodunfolded.com/article/gluten-free-foods-are-they-actually-healthy?gclid=CjwKCAiAyc2BBhAaEiwA44-wW8MkgrKtydFFzE4UkyxTrkHd_RDDGaUKzYSL7GfsZexxfIj7V9I_tRoC3gIQAvD_BwE Aziz I, Hadjivassiliou M, Sanders DS. The spectrum of noncoeliac gluten sensitivity. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2015 Epub ahead of print  
2021-05-26

Ketogenic Diet 生酮飲食

Ketogenic Diet  Ketogenic Diet is a diet that reduce carbohydrates and increase fat and protein intake. It suggests that using fat as the main source of energy instead of carbohydrates. So that our body can go through ketosis. Ketosis is a metabolic state which our body started to break down fats into ketones when there are no blood sugar from food. There are 4 types of ketogenic diets- Standard ketogenic diet (SKD), Cyclical ketogenic diet (CKD), targeted ketogenic diet (TKD) and high protein ketogenic diet. SKD is the most common ketogenic diet which people will follow and it contains just 10% of carbohydrates, 20% protein and 70% of fat. People who are under ketogenic diet usually avoid food that is high in carbohydrates both starchy and sugary food. For example bread, pasta, rice, potatoes, fruits, beer, soda and candy. And they will eat food like meat, seafood, cheese, natural fat (butter, olive oil, etc) and low carbohydrate vegetables (e.g. Asparagus, avocado, cabbage, spinach, kale, etc) This diet is mainly used to treat people with epilepsy in the past but now it is a common diet that people use to lose weight. Studies also showed that ketogenic diet have helped patients with neurological disorder like dementia, ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis), traumatic brain injury, acne, cancer, and metabolic disorder.  Although Ketogenic diet have a lot of benefits. But you should bear in mind that people who have pancreatic disease, liver condition, thyroid problems, eating disorder or history of eating disorder and gallbladder disease should reconsider trying this diet or should ask their medical profession for some advice.  Other than benefits there are also some risk for example deficiencies in vitamins and minerals deficiencies (vitamin A, C, K and folate) so you might pay more attention to the variety of food and need to take some supplements.  Although there are a lot of studies show there is correlation between high fat intake and cardiovascular disease but there is not much studies that show there is correlation between ketogenic diet and cardiovascular disease. Finally everyone has different reaction towards different diet plan so you should watch how your body change when you change to a complete new diet if there are any severe problems you should seek ideas from healthcare professionals. (Written by Ms Candice Ho, HK BioTek Nutritionist)   ***** 生酮飲食 生酮飲食法是一種減少碳水化合物,增加脂肪和蛋白質的飲食法。它建議使用脂肪代替碳水化合物作為主要能量。這樣我們的身體才能通過酮症。酮症是一種代謝狀態,當食物中沒有血糖時,我們的身體開始將脂肪分解為酮。 生酮飲食有4種類型 – 標準生酮飲食(SKD)、循環生酮飲食(CKD)、目標生酮飲食(TKD)和高蛋白生酮飲食。 標準生酮飲食是我們最常見的生酮飲食,它只包含10%的碳水化合物、20%的蛋白質和70%的脂肪。 進行生酮飲食的人通常避免食用含有高碳水化合物的食物,包括澱粉和含糖食物,例如麵包、麵食、米飯、馬鈴薯、水果、啤酒、汽水和糖果。他們會多吃肉類、海鮮、奶類、天然脂肪(牛油、橄欖油等)和低碳水化合物蔬菜(例如蘆筍、牛油果、捲心菜、菠菜、羽衣甘藍等)等食物。 這種飲食一直以來主要是用於治療癲癇症患者,但現在它成為人們常用來減肥的飲食方法。很多研究指出,生酮飲食法能幫助患有神經系統疾病的患者,如癡呆症、ALS(肌萎縮性側索硬化)、腦外傷、青春痘、癌症和代謝紊亂。儘管生酮飲食有很多好處,但如果您患有胰腺、肝臟或甲狀腺疾病、飲食失調或有飲食失調的病史、膽囊問題,您應重新考慮要不要嘗試生酮飲食,或是先向醫生尋求專業建議。 進行生酮飲食的人會比較容易缺乏一些維生素和礦物質(如維生素A、C、K和葉酸),因此您可能需要注意日常飲食的種類,或在有需要時服用一些營養補充劑。儘管有很多研究表明高脂肪攝入與心血管疾病之間有關,但沒有太多研究指出生酮飲食與心血管疾病之間相關。最後一點是,每個人對不同的飲食計劃都會有不同的反應,因此,當改變飲食習慣時,您應該注意身體的變化;當出現嚴重問題時,應尋求醫療人士的幫助或意見。 (文章由HK BioTek營養師何婉橋撰寫)   Reference: 1.    Shilpa, J., & Mohan, V. (2018, September). Ketogenic diets: Boon or bane? Retrieved February 25, 2021, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6251269/ 2.    Marcelo Campos, M. (2020, April 27). Ketogenic diet: Is the ultimate low-carb diet good for you? Retrieved February 25, 2021, from https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/ketogenic-diet-is-the-ultimate-low-carb-diet-good-for-you-2017072712089 3.    Gordon, B. (n.d.). What is the ketogenic diet. Retrieved February 25, 2021, from https://www.eatright.org/health/weight-loss/fad-diets/what-is-the-ketogenic-diet           
2021-05-26

Paleo Diet 原始人飲食法

Paleo Diet  Paleo Diet (also called as Paleolithic, caveman, Stone Age or steak and bacon diet) is a diet that you eat food that might be eaten during the Paleolithic era. Food that are included in the Paleo Diet are food that you can get by hunting and gathering in the past that include lean meat, fruits, vegetables, nuts, and seeds. So, you will avoid eating refined sugar, wheat, dairy, grains, and legumes as well as processed food.  A lot of the people will be confused about Ketogenic Diet and Paleo diet. But actually they have a lot of differences like Paleo Diet allow people to eat natural sugar, but Ketogenic Diet do not allow people to eat natural sugar but allow sugar free sweeteners. Basically, Paleo Diet is a diet that follow what early human beings eat and Ketogenic Diet is to eliminate carbohydrates intake. A lot of people think that caveman is a carnivore. So, they believe Paleo Diet is a diet which you just eat meat or a lot of meat with little portion of vegetables. But actually, it is not they eat about 20-25 plant-based food a day, so they are omnivore. Therefore, Paleo Diet is not just about eating meat. People who support Paleo Diet think that our body is not well adapted to the modern foods. Also, they think that people in the past is healthier than us so they will choose to follow the Paleo diet to eliminate food like dairy, grains, and legumes. A lot of research shows that Paleo Diet can help a person to lose weight and to prevent heart disease and diabetes.  There are a lot of benefits of Paleo diet for example have more weight loss, can improve glucose tolerance, better control of blood pressure and better appetite management. This diet improves our health by eliminating processed food that are high in fat and low in nutritional value with high calories. Other than benefits there are also some health risks like calcium and vitamin D deficiencies so you might need to take certain type of supplements to fulfill your daily intake. So, when anyone who is planning to switch to a new diet, they should better seek advice from their healthcare professional especially when you have chronic disease like heart disease, diabetes, and high blood pressure. (Written by Ms Candice Ho, HK BioTek Nutritionist)   ***** 原始人飲食法 原始人飲食法(也稱為舊石器時代、穴居人、石器時代或「牛排和煙肉」飲食)是一種採用舊石器時代飲食方式的飲食法。原始人飲食中包含的食物是人類通過狩獵和採集而獲得的食物,其中包括肉、水果、蔬菜、堅果和種子。因此,您將避免食用精製糖、小麥、乳製品、穀物和豆類,以及加工食品。 生酮飲食法和原始人飲食法很容易令人混淆,但是實際上它們有很多分別。原始人飲食法允許人們食用天然糖份,而生酮飲食法要完全避開食用天然糖份,但可進食不含糖份的甜味劑。基本上,原始人飲食是一種遵循人類早期飲食的飲食法,而生酮飲食則是避開攝入碳水化合物。 許多人認為穴居人是食肉獸。因此,他們認為原始人飲食法是一種您可以只吃肉、不吃蔬菜的飲食法。但是實際上,這是不對的。穴居人是雜食動物,除了肉類,每天會吃大約20至25種植物性食物。因此,原始人飲食不等於只吃肉。支持原始人飲食的人認為人類身體不能適應現代的食品,而且,他們認為古代的人比我們更健康,因此他們將選擇遵循古代人的飲食,戒吃乳製品、穀物和豆類食品。大量研究表明,原始人飲食可以幫助人們減輕體重,預防心臟病和糖尿病。 原始人飲食法有很多好處,例如:減輕體重、改善葡萄糖耐量及更好地控制血壓和控制食慾。這種飲食通過避免高脂肪及低營養價值的加工食品來改善我們的健康。進行原始人飲食的人會比較容易,缺乏鈣和維生素D,因此需要注意食物種類,或服用營養補充劑來滿足日常攝入量。當你打算進行任何一種新的飲食法時,最好先向醫療保健專業人員尋求建議,特別是當您患有如心臟病、糖尿病和高血壓等慢性疾病。 (文章由HK BioTek營養師何婉橋撰寫)   Reference: 1.    McMillen, M. (2020, September 09). Paleo diet (CAVEMAN diet) Review, Foods list, and more. Retrieved February 25, 2021, from https://www.webmd.com/diet/a-z/paleo-diet 2.    Keto vs. paleo: What are the similarities and differences? (n.d.). Retrieved February 25, 2021, from https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/326287#side-effects 3.    UC Davis Health, D. (n.d.). Is the paleo diet safe for your health? Retrieved February 25, 2021, from https://health.ucdavis.edu/welcome/features/2014-2015/06/20150603_paleo-diet.html#:~:text=The%20typical%20paleo%20diet%2C%20however,heart%20disease%20and%20certain%20cancers. 4.    Roxby, P. (2010, September 17). Recreating the caveman diet. Retrieved February 25, 2021, from https://www.bbc.com/news/health-1107543    
2021-05-26