Ketogenic Diet 

Ketogenic Diet is a diet that reduce carbohydrates and increase fat and protein intake. It suggests that using fat as the main source of energy instead of carbohydrates. So that our body can go through ketosis. Ketosis is a metabolic state which our body started to break down fats into ketones when there are no blood sugar from food.

There are 4 types of ketogenic diets- Standard ketogenic diet (SKD), Cyclical ketogenic diet (CKD), targeted ketogenic diet (TKD) and high protein ketogenic diet. SKD is the most common ketogenic diet which people will follow and it contains just 10% of carbohydrates, 20% protein and 70% of fat.

People who are under ketogenic diet usually avoid food that is high in carbohydrates both starchy and sugary food. For example bread, pasta, rice, potatoes, fruits, beer, soda and candy. And they will eat food like meat, seafood, cheese, natural fat (butter, olive oil, etc) and low carbohydrate vegetables (e.g. Asparagus, avocado, cabbage, spinach, kale, etc)

This diet is mainly used to treat people with epilepsy in the past but now it is a common diet that people use to lose weight. Studies also showed that ketogenic diet have helped patients with neurological disorder like dementia, ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis), traumatic brain injury, acne, cancer, and metabolic disorder.  Although Ketogenic diet have a lot of benefits. But you should bear in mind that people who have pancreatic disease, liver condition, thyroid problems, eating disorder or history of eating disorder and gallbladder disease should reconsider trying this diet or should ask their medical profession for some advice. 

Other than benefits there are also some risk for example deficiencies in vitamins and minerals deficiencies (vitamin A, C, K and folate) so you might pay more attention to the variety of food and need to take some supplements.  Although there are a lot of studies show there is correlation between high fat intake and cardiovascular disease but there is not much studies that show there is correlation between ketogenic diet and cardiovascular disease. Finally everyone has different reaction towards different diet plan so you should watch how your body change when you change to a complete new diet if there are any severe problems you should seek ideas from healthcare professionals.

(Written by Ms Candice Ho, HK BioTek Nutritionist)

 

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生酮飲食

生酮飲食法是一種減少碳水化合物,增加脂肪和蛋白質的飲食法。它建議使用脂肪代替碳水化合物作為主要能量。這樣我們的身體才能通過酮症。酮症是一種代謝狀態,當食物中沒有血糖時,我們的身體開始將脂肪分解為酮。

生酮飲食有4種類型 – 標準生酮飲食(SKD)、循環生酮飲食(CKD)、目標生酮飲食(TKD)和高蛋白生酮飲食。 標準生酮飲食是我們最常見的生酮飲食,它只包含10%的碳水化合物、20%的蛋白質和70%的脂肪。

進行生酮飲食的人通常避免食用含有高碳水化合物的食物,包括澱粉和含糖食物,例如麵包、麵食、米飯、馬鈴薯、水果、啤酒、汽水和糖果。他們會多吃肉類、海鮮、奶類、天然脂肪(牛油、橄欖油等)和低碳水化合物蔬菜(例如蘆筍、牛油果、捲心菜、菠菜、羽衣甘藍等)等食物。

這種飲食一直以來主要是用於治療癲癇症患者,但現在它成為人們常用來減肥的飲食方法。很多研究指出,生酮飲食法能幫助患有神經系統疾病的患者,如癡呆症、ALS(肌萎縮性側索硬化)、腦外傷、青春痘、癌症和代謝紊亂。儘管生酮飲食有很多好處,但如果您患有胰腺、肝臟或甲狀腺疾病、飲食失調或有飲食失調的病史、膽囊問題,您應重新考慮要不要嘗試生酮飲食,或是先向醫生尋求專業建議。

進行生酮飲食的人會比較容易缺乏一些維生素和礦物質(如維生素A、C、K和葉酸),因此您可能需要注意日常飲食的種類,或在有需要時服用一些營養補充劑。儘管有很多研究表明高脂肪攝入與心血管疾病之間有關,但沒有太多研究指出生酮飲食與心血管疾病之間相關。最後一點是,每個人對不同的飲食計劃都會有不同的反應,因此,當改變飲食習慣時,您應該注意身體的變化;當出現嚴重問題時,應尋求醫療人士的幫助或意見。

(文章由HK BioTek營養師何婉橋撰寫)

 

Reference:

1.    Shilpa, J., & Mohan, V. (2018, September). Ketogenic diets: Boon or bane? Retrieved February 25, 2021, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6251269/

2.    Marcelo Campos, M. (2020, April 27). Ketogenic diet: Is the ultimate low-carb diet good for you? Retrieved February 25, 2021, from https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/ketogenic-diet-is-the-ultimate-low-carb-diet-good-for-you-2017072712089

3.    Gordon, B. (n.d.). What is the ketogenic diet. Retrieved February 25, 2021, from https://www.eatright.org/health/weight-loss/fad-diets/what-is-the-ketogenic-diet