Low GI Diet 

Glycemic index (GI) is a measurement system for foods containing carbohydrate, which according to their effect on blood glucose levels. It represents how foods quickly affect your blood glucose levels. Carbohydrate can be broken down into glucose by digestive system and enter to the bloodstream, resulting in the blood glucose level rise.

The low glycemic (low GI) diet is based on the concept of GI and it is originally designed for patients with diabetes and dieting purposes. Foods with low GI value are the preferred choice, suggesting that eating low GI foods instead of high GI foods can control dramatic fluctuations in blood glucose levels.

Apart from the positive effect on blood glucose monitoring, low GI diet is also associated with the weight loss and cholesterol reduction. Low GI foods can delay the onset of hunger by maintaining sense of fullness. Therefore, this could control your appetite and is helpful on weight management. Many researches has been demonstrated that low GI diets may improve body weight, BMI, reduce blood glucose levels, and lower the risk of cardiovascular disease in people with overweight or obesity.

Here are some foods with low GI are listed below, including:

1.    Some fruit and vegetables: Grapefruit, Pears, Apples, Asparagus, Broccoli, Cabbage, Tomatoes 
2.    Pulses: Kidney beans, Peas, Lentils, Chickpeas, Moong dal
3.    Wholegrain foods:  Porridge oats, Barley, Wholegrain pasta, Sourdough bread

It is worth noting that not all low GI foods are healthy, and high GI foods are not necessarily unhealthy. In addition, the combination of different foods and serving size are crucial factors which should be considerate. If you only eat foods with low GI and large portion, your diet may be unbalanced.

In conclusion, low GI foods are suitable for patient who suffering from diabetes. For those who pay attention to their weight or glucose levels by using this diet method, it is also recommended to maintain a healthy and balanced diet.

(Written by Mr Martin Dai, HK BioTek Nutritionist)

 

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低升糖飲食

低升糖飲食又被稱為低GI飲食。一般情況下,碳水化合物食物會通過消化系統被分解成葡萄糖,並進入血液中,血糖亦因而上升。GI是Glycemic index的簡稱,指的是升糖指數 (又稱血糖生成指數) ,反映進食含碳水化合物 (醣質) 的食物後,對血糖影響的數值,因此簡單來說,就是食物對血糖的影響。

低GI飲食是基於食物中的GI和理論而衍生的飲食法。目的是透過選擇食用低GI的食物來控制血糖的升幅,從而幫助糖尿病患者及降低糖尿病併發症的風險。由於低GI的食物轉化葡萄糖速度比高GI的食物較慢,血糖升幅也較少,因此這種飲食法於關注血糖健康的群體中特別流行。

GI除了對血糖指數具有監測的作用外,不少研究亦指出通過低GI飲食能對體重管理和膽固醇的控制有很大幫助。低GI食物能維持較長的飽腹感來延遲饑餓度的時間,食慾亦因此而下降,並有助於體重管理。

一些常見的低GI食物,包括:

1.    蔬菜和水果:葡萄,梨,蘋果,蘆筍,西蘭花,白菜,蕃茄等
2.    豆類:腰豆,豌豆,小扁豆,綠豆等
3.    全穀類製品食物:燕麥、大麥,黑麥,全麥面食,酸面包等

值得一提,不是所有低GI食物都是健康的,高GI食物也不一定是不健康。另外,亦需要考慮不同種類食物的配搭和份量。如果僅吃低GI的食物和份量過多,有機會造成飲食不均衡,適得其反。

總括而言,低GI飲食是為控制血糖升幅的指標,同時亦應注意健康均衡的飲食,控制食物的分量和配搭,以達至理想的血糖控制和減肥效果。

(文章由HK BioTek營養師戴孟庭撰寫)

資料來源:
1.    香港糖尿協會
2.    Low-glycemic index diets as an intervention for diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis
3.    A Beginner’s Guide to the Low Glycemic Diet (Healthline)
4.    What is the glycaemic index (GI)? (NHS)